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N-Acetylcysteine (NAC): An Old Nutrient Attracts New Research
Richard A. Passwater, Ph. D.
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In a previous articel, I discussed why AIDS researchers were excited about two
nutrients, Vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). While most Whole Foods readers
know a great deal about the roles of vitamin C in nourishing the body, some readers may
not be all that familiar with the roles of the sulfur-containing nutrients, such as NAC,
in nourishing the body. Therefore, I promised to provide more background on NAC in this
Our understanding of the many nutritional and biochemical roles of sulfur-containing nutrients is expanding rapidly at this time. We are learning more about how glutathione and its sulfur-containing precursors are important in keeping our bodies nourished, our immune systems healthy, and in protecting us against cancer and heart disease.
Glutathione, cysteine, methionine, selenocysteine and selenomethionine have been important in my research for over thirty years. Even before that, I believe that some of the health pioneers indirectly realized the importance of these compounds as a group, even though they didn't understand much about the roles of the individual compounds. When the "pioneers" spoke so favorably of getting adequate "sulfur" in the diet, I believe that they were really testifying to the importance of these sulfur-containing nutrients. Not much has been said about them in "mainstream" nutrition, but today, interest in learning how sulfur-containing nutrients nourish the body is increasing.
Researchers are rushing to study the roles of these nutrients in halting the dreaded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), breaking up lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], detoxifying harmful chemicals, scavaging free radicals and possibly protecting against some cancer processes. Since these nutrients are normally produced in plants, man and other animals, they have always been a part of the human diet.
Sulfur-containing nutrients play several critical roles in the body including detoxification and protecting cells and cellular components against oxidative stress. My interest in glutathione and cysteine began in the 1960's when they were found to be protective against nuclear radiation. I reasoned that the same mechanism of action would make them excellent free-radical scavengers as well. They did, and twenty-one years ago I reported that, "sulfhydryl compounds that are excellent radiation protectors are also free-radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, catalysts of sulfhydryl-disulfide exchange, and possibly can implement repair of damaged sites. Sulfhydryl compounds and vitamin E also increase the body's tolerance to selenium." 
Today, NAC is of greater interest than glutathione itself. NAC is produced in living organisms from the amino acid cysteine. Thus, NAC is a natural sulfur-containing amino acid derivative found naturally in foods and is a powerful antioxidant. [3,4] These dual properties help repair oxidative damage in the body.
Both NAC and glutathione are well absorbed. [5-8] NAC is rapidly metabolized, and only about ten percent of the amount consumed stays in the blood for an appreciable time.  Much of the NAC is very rapidly consumed in producing intracellular glutathione. However, even the thiol metabolites of NAC are good antioxidants.
NAC readily crosses cell membranes, even in HIV-infected cells, whereas glutathione does not enter into HIV-infected cells in adequate amounts. [10-12] Even so, NAC does not seem to raise tissue or blood levels of glutathione above the desired ranges.  Thus, the nutrient role of NAC is to help maintain healthy levels of intracellular glutathione , especially whenever a condition has limited glutathione production. This nutrient role of maintaining optimal levels of essential body compounds is different from "drug roles" in which body compounds are just elevated without homeostasis or normal body regulation.
Since NAC is a powerful antioxidant nutrient, it has been of special interest to athletes for some time as heavy exercise increases oxidative damage in the body. [13-15] But the latest research interests are in AIDS and heart disease.
A growing area of interest is that research has pinpointed a specific lipoprotein called Lp(a) as one of the two most reliable indicators of heart disease risk. [16-20] The other reliable indicator is the level of vitamin E in the blood.  Lp(a) is a much more reliable indicator than blood cholesterol level, low density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein or their ratios to each other.
Diets and drugs designed to lower blood cholesterol levels do not lower Lp(a) levels. Now recent research has found that NAC is the most effective nutrient known to lower Lp(a) levels. NAC reduces Lp(a) by almost 70%. [22-25] Lp(a) consists of a LDL particle attached to the large glycoprotein apo(a) by one or more disulfide bonds. NAC breaks up the disulfide bonds by converting each disulfide group into two sulfhydryl groups now in two separate compounds.
NAC also inhibits heart damage by preventing LDL from being oxidized and by destroying free radicals produced after an infarction. [26-29]
Immunity and AIDS
NAC affects immunity via its role in intracellular glutathione production. This role becomes critical when normal glutathione production pathways are impaired, as for example, by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Eck has shown that reduced intracellular glutathione is the "direct and early consequence of retroviral infection." 
Intracellular glutathione has a powerful influence on how well T- and B-lymphocyte cells function . [12,30] In addition, intracellular glutathione availability affects the production of phagocytes (macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils). T-cells and B-cells are lymphocytes (white cells that are the principal cells of lymph). B-cells produce antibodies and are responsible for humoral response, while T-cells help produce antibodies, secrete interferon and other lymphokines, and are responsible for cell-mediated response. The phagocytes have the function of killing viruses, bacteria and fungi.
Free radicals can impair the immune system and NAC can protect against free radicals and enhance the immune system. [31-33]
As discussed in detail in the previous issue, NAC has been shown to block the AIDS virus (HIV) production in vitro, apparently by increasing glutathione levels in HIV-infected cells. [34-46] In the previous article, I also discussed the synergism of NAC and vitamin C. Beside vitamin C reducing oxidized glutathione back to free reduced (active) glutathione, vitamin C and NAC had complementary actions to slow the replication of the AIDS virus.
I reported last month that in addition to NAC and vitamin C (especially Ester-C (tm)), AIDS Related Complex (ARC) and AIDS patients should be sure that they are well-nourished with cysteine, selenium, garlic, vitamin B-12, folic acid, zinc and Dimethylglycine (DMG). Add Coenzyme Q-10 to this list. Dr. Karl Folkers and colleagues at the Institute for Biomedical Research at the University of Texas have expanded on their recent study of ARC patients who have now lived for over four years with ARC without developing "full-blown" AIDS by taking 200 milligrams of Coenzyme Q-10 daily. Their first small-scale study was published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research, and their expanded study will be published in the Journal of Applied Nutrition. Detoxification
These sulfur-containing nutrients are also gaining new interest because they protect against toxins. NAC is particularly effective and NAC detoxifies several toxic agents including the heavy metals such as mercury, lead and cadmium [48-54], drugs including acetaminophen (e. g. Tylenol (tm)) [9,55-61], herbicides such as paraquat , environmental pollutants such as carbon tetrachloride and urethane [63-67], and microorganism including aflatoxin and Escherichia coli [68-70].
NAC, cysteine and glutathione contain sulfur in the form of sulfhydryl groups. Sulfhydryl groups directly react with many poisons, especially heavy metals such as lead, mercury and cadmium. These sulfur-containing nutrients are the bodies first line of defense against many poisons as they tie-up the poisons right in the gut. They also offer second-line and third-line defenses in the liver and various individual cells. Sulfhydryl groups also help remove toxins indirectly via an enzyme system called the P-450 System.
NAC also has a secondary role in detoxification since it helps produce optimal amounts of glutathione which also conjugates with most "foreign" compounds and excess oxidizers that enter cells. The harmful compounds that have been conjugated with glutathione then pass harmlessly out of the body through the biliary system. 
Although NAC is a food component and a nutrient accessory factor, it is also marketed as a drug with approved medical claims. Other nutrients also have dual classifications, but just because a nutrient is also approved for "drug" usage, its role as a nutrient is not affected unless drug claims are made. If the nutrient is used to nourish the body, it remains a nutrient. If the nutrient is used to treat a non-deficiency disease, then this use changes its legal classification to a drug.
NAC is approved as a drug for use to prevent liver damage from acetaminophen overdose. Either NAC tablets or solutions may be used to protect against acetaminophen overdose. Normally, the 20 percent solution is mixed with a cola drink.
The Lancet reports that NAC is also effective in reducing the toxic effects of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and carbon monoxide.  NAC can also reduce the side effects of drugs such as doxorubicin, ifosphamide, valproic acid and alcohol. [9,60,61]
NAC protects against cancer by both of its roles as antioxidant and detoxifier. [4,70-76]
NAC also reduces the toxic effects of some chemotherapy agents such as cisplatin and oxazophosporine-based agents. [77,78]
NAC has been used for about thirty years to break up mucus in persons having bronchopulmonary diseases including chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, asthma, sinusitis and pneumonia.  NAC helps reduce the viscosity of mucus so that it may be more easily coughed up.  NAC accomplishes this by converting the disulfide bonds of the mucoproteins into sulfhydryl bonds and cleaving the mucoproteins into smaller molecules.
Several companies provide a 10 or 20 percent NAC solution as a nebulizer spray (such as Bristol Laboratories' Mucomyst TM), while others such as Italy's Zambon group provides NAC in tablet form. When a nutrient is topically applied or sprayed into the lungs, it can then be classified also as a drug because it does not then enter into metabolism to nourish the body when it is administered in this way. (However, this is different from having a nutrient absorbed into the body by sublingual or nasal membrane application which allows the nutrient to nourish the body.)
Optimal Intake Ranges
There are a few toxicological studies of NAC available and the following observations can be made. NAC in normal food supplementation ranges is without known toxicity and has been administered by physicians under supervision in doses of 500 milligrams to four grams daily. Daily levels of 1,000 milligrams of NAC per kilogram in rats for several months did not produce adverse effects in behavior, weight gain, hematology, liver function and kidney function.  (That's the equivalent of 60 grams of NAC per day for a 132 pound person, 80 grams per day for a 176 pound person, or 100 grams per day for a 220 pound person.)
When administered via nebulizer, adverse effects can include stomatitis, nausea and nasal irritation.  Intravenous administration could also produce edema and a rapid heart beat. 
Larger quantities used for treating acetaminophen overdoses have produced adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, and other gastrointestinal symptoms.  Rash, with or without mild fever, has been reported on rare occasions with very large quantities. intravenous administration of more than 150 milligrams of NAC per kilogram of body weight within a fifteen minute period may produce toxic or other undesirable effects. 
The mouse LD50 of oral NAC is reported to be about 8,000 milligrams of NAC per kilogram in the mouse, and 5050 milligrams per kilogram in the rat. [81,82] For more details on NAC safety, please refer to references 83 through 88.
2. Human Aging Research: Part TwoPasswater, Richard A. and Welker, Paul A.Amer. Lab. 3(5):21-6 (May 1971)
3. Enhancement of ischaemic rabbit skin flap survival with theantioxidant and free-radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine.Knight, K., et al,Clin. Sci. 81:31-6 (1991)
4. Antioxidant activity and other mechanisms of thiols involvedin chemoprevention of mutation and cancer.De Flora, Silvio, et al,Amer. J. Med. 91(Suppl 3C):122S-130S (Sep. 30, 1991)
5. Bioavailability of dietary glutathione: Effect on plasmaconcentration.Hagen, Torie M., et al,Amer. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 259(4):22-4(1990) and Amer. J. Physiol. 259:G524-G529 (1990)
6. Glutathione-mediated transport across intestinal brush-bordermembranes.Vincenzini, M. T., Favilli, F. and Iantomasi, T.Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Ser. Biomembr. 942(1):107-14 (1988)
7. Glutathione and Aflatoxin B-1 induced liver tumors: Evidencethat the intact glutathione molecule is required by theneoplastic tissue to undergo regression of malignancy.Novi, A. M., Florke, R. and Stukenkemper, M.Science 212:541-2 (1981)
8. Exogenous glutathione protects intestinal epithelial cellsfrom oxidative injury.Lash, Lawrence H., et al,Proceed. Natl. Acad. Sci. 83:4641-5 (1986)
9. AcetylcysteineEditorialThe Lancet 337(8749):1069-70 (May 4, 1991)
10. Systemic glutathione deficiency in symptom-free HIV-seropositive individuals. Buhl, Roland, et al.,The Lancet 2(8675):1294-8 (Dec. 2, 1989)
11. Glutathione concentrations in plasma and blood are markedlydecreased in HIV-infected children.Smith, C. V., et al.,Int. Conf. AIDS 6(2):368 (abst. # 2058) (June 20-3, 1990)
12. Metabolic disorder as early consequence of SimianImmunodeficiency Virus infection in Rhesus macaques.Eck, Hans-Peter, et al,Lancet 338:346-7 (Aug. 10, 1991)
13. Blood antioxidant status and erythrocyte lipid peroxidationfollowing distance running.Duthie, G., et al.Arch. Bioch. 282:78-83 (1990)
14. Protective Effect of Vitamin E On Exercise-induced OxidativeDamage in Young and ELderly Subjects.Meydani, M., et al.International Society for Free Radical Research, 5th BiennialMtg. Pasadena, CA (Nov. 14-20, 1990)
15. Spintrappers and Vitamin E prolong endurance to musclefatigue in mice.Novelli, G., et al.Free Rad. Bio. Med. 8:9-13 (1990)
16. Lp(a) lipoprotein as a risk factor for myocardialinfarction.Rhoads, G. G., et al,JAMA 256:2540-4 (1986)
17. Apolipoprotein(a), A1 and B and parental history in men withearly onset ischaemic heart disease.Durrington, P. N., et al,Lancet I 1070-3 (1988)
18. Lipoprotein(a) modulation of endothelial cell surfacefibrinolysis and its potential role in atherosclerosis.Hajjar, K. A., et al,Nature 339:303-5 (1989)
19. Lipoprotein(a)EditorialLancet 337:397-8 (Feb. 16, 1991)20. Lipoprotein(a): A possible link between lipoproteinmetabolism and thrombosis.Rees, AlanBrit, Heart J. 65:2-3 (1991)
21. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortalityfrom ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology.Gey,, K. Fred, et al,Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 53:326S-34S (1991)
22. Lipoprotein(a) reduction by N-acetylcysteine.Gavish, Dov and Breslow, Jan L.The Lancet 337:203-4 (Jan. 26, 1991)
23. N-acetylcysteine and lipoprotein.Stalenhoef, A. F. H., et al,The Lancet 337:491 (Feb. 23, 1991)
24. N-Acetylcysteine and immunoreactivity of lipoprotein(a).Scanu, Angelo M.The Lancet 337:1159 (May 4, 1991)
25. Thiols and cysteine-containing compounds attenuate theimmunoreactivity of Lp(a).Scanu, Angelo M., et al,Arterioscl. Thromb. 11(5):1481a (Sep./Oct. 1991)
26. The role of glutathione status in the protection againstischaemic and reperfusion damage: Effects ofN-acetylcysteine.Ceconi, C., et al,J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 20:5-13 (1988)
27. Beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine and cysteine instunned myocardium in perfused rat heart.Tang, L-D., et al,Brit. J. Pharmacol. 102(3):601-6 (1991)
28. Lipoprotein(a) reduction by N-acetylcysteine.Hansen, P. R.Lancet 337:672-3 (1991)
29. Continuous oral N-acetylcysteine treatment and developmentof nitrate tolerance in patients with stable anginapectoris.Boesgaard, Soren, et al,J. Cardiovas. Pharmacol. 17(6):889-93 (1991)
30. Mercaptoethanol and N-acetylcysteine enhance T-cell colonyformation in AIDS and ARC.Wu, J., Levy, E. M. and Black, P. H.Clin. Exp. Immunol. 77:7-10 (1989)
31. Lymphocyte dysfunction after DNA damage by toxic oxygenspecies.Carson, D. A., Seto, S. and Wasson, D. B.J. Exp. Med. 163:746-51 (1986)
32. Immunomodulation by neutrophil myeloperoxidase and hydrogenperoxide: Differential susceptibility of human lymphocytefunctions.El-Hag, A., et al,J. Immunol. 136:3420-6 (1986)
33. Thiol-containing antioxidant drugs and the human immunesystem.Stagnaro, R., et al,Bull. Eur. Physiopathol. Respir. 23:303-7 (1987)
34. Suppression of Cytokine-induced Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) expression by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), glutathione(GSH) and Glutathione monoester (GSE)Kinter, Audrey L., et al,75th Annual Meeting of the Federation of American Societiesfor Experimental Biology, Atlanta, Georgia (April 21-5, 1991)J. FASEB 5(5) A1265 (1991)
35. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus expression inchronically infected monocytic cells by glutathione,glutathione ester, and N-acetylcysteine. Kalebic, Thea, et al,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88(3):986-90 (1991)
36. Thiol-based compounds may limit AIDS progression.CDC AIDS Weekly p3 (Feb. 25, 1991)
37. N-acetylcysteine inhibits latent HIV expression inchronically infected cells.Roederer, M., et al,AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 7(6):563-7 (1991)
38. Cytokine-stimulated human immunodeficiency virus replicationis inhibited by N-acetylcysteine.Roederer, M., et al,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87:4884-8 (1990)
39. Intercellular thiols regulate activation of nuclear factorkappa B and transcription of HIV.Staal, F. J., Roederer, M. Herzenberg, L. A. andHerzenberg, L. A.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87(24):9943-7 (Dec. 1990)
40. Reducing agents and AIDS - Why are we waiting?Turner, V. F.Med. J. Aust. 153/8, 502 (1990)
41. Mercaptoethanol and N-acetylcysteine enhance T-cell colonyformation in AIDS and ARC. Wu, J., et al,Clin. Exp. Immunol. 77/1, 7-10 (1989)
42. AIDS - Drug therapy; Acetylcysteine research.Cooper, MikeCDC AIDS Weekly p4 (Oct. 2, 1989)
43. Glutathione deficiency and radiosensitivity in AIDSpatients.Vallis, K. A.The Lancet 337:918-9 (April 13, 1991)
44. Comparative study of the anti-HIV activities of ascorbateand thiol-containing reducing agents in chronicallyHIV-infected cells.Harakeh, Steve and Jariwalla, Raxit J.Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:1231S-5S (1991)
45. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication and NF-kappa B activity bycysteine and cysteine derivatives.Mihm, S., et al,AIDS 5(5):497-503 (May 1991)
46. Intracellular glutathione level controls DNA-bindingactivity of NF kappa B-like proteins. Mihm, S. and Droge, W.Int. Conf. AIDS 6(3):159 (abst. # SA311) (June 20-3, 1990)
47. Coenzyme Q10 increases T4/T8 ratios of lymphocytes inordinary subjects and relevance to patients having the AIDSrelated complex. Folkers, Karl, et al,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 176(2):786-91 (April 30, 1991)
48. Clinical application for heavy metal-complexing potential ofN-acetylcysteine.Lorber, A., et al,J. Clin. Pharmacol. 13:332-6 (1973)
49. N-acetylcysteine therapy of acute heavy metal poisoning inmice.Henderson, P., et al,Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 27:522-5 (1985)
50. Treatment of acute methylmercury ingestion byhemodialysis with N-acetylcysteine.Lund, M. E., Clarkson, T. W. and Berlin, M.J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 22:31-49 (1984)
51. Lung and blood superoxide dismutase activity in mercuryvapor exposed rats.Livardjani, F. et al,Toxicol. 66(3):289-95 (1991)
52. Effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in protecting againstmercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity.Girardi, G. and Elias M. M.Toxicol. 67(2):155-64 (1991)
53. Experimental chelation therapy in chromium, lead and boronintoxification with N-acetylcysteine.Tong, T. G.Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 83:142-7 (1986)
54. The role of glutathione in detoxification.Ketterer, B., Coles, B. and Meyer, D. JEnvir. Health Perspec. 49:59-69 (1983)
55. Mechanism of action of N-acetylcysteine in the protectionagainst hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in rats in vivo.Lauterburg, B. H., Corcoran, G. B. and Mitchell, J. R.J. Clin. Invest. 71:980-991 (1983)
56. Role of glutathione in prevention of acetaminophen-inducedhepatotoxicity by N-acetyl-L-cysteine in vivo.Corcoran, G. B. and Wong, B. K.J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 238:54-61 (1986)
57. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on plasma cysteine andglutathione following paracetamol administration.Burgunder, J. M., Varriale, A. and Lauterberg, B. H.Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 36:127-31 (1989)
58. The disposition and kinetics of intravenousN-acetylcysteine in patients with paracetamol overdosage.Prescott, L. F., et al,Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 37:501-6 (1989)
59. Improvement by acetylcysteine of hemodynamics and oxygentransport in fulminant hepatic failure.Harrison, Phillip M., et al,N. Engl. J. Med. 324(26):1852-7 (June 27, 1991)
60. Identification and characterization of the glutathione andN-acetylcysteine conjugates of E-2, Propyl-2,4-pentadienoicacid (a toxic metabolite of valproic acid in rats andhumans.Kassahun, K. Farrell, K. and Abbott, F.Drug Metab. Dispos. 19(2):525-35 (1991)
61. N-acetylcysteine: Protective agent or promoter of gastricdamage?Lopez, R. A., et al,PSKBM 197:273-8 (1991)
62. N-acetylcysteine improves the survival rate of paraquatpoisoned rats: Elucidation of its mode of action.Hoffer, E., et al,Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(4 part 2) A731 (1991)
63. Allopurinol/N-acetylcysteine for carbon monoxide poisoning.Howard, R. J. M. W., et al,Lancet II 628-9 (1987)
64. Acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning in 19 patients:Implications for diagnosis and treatment.Ruprah, M., Mant, T. G. and Flanagan, R. J.Lancet I 1027-9 (1985)
65. Survival after iassive ingestion of carbon tetrachloridetreated by intravenous infusion of acetylcysteine.Mathieson, P. W., Williams, G. and MacSweeney, J. E.Hum. Toxicol. 4(6):627-31 (1985)
66. Inhibition of urethane-induced lung tumors in mice bydietary N-acetylcysteine.De Flora, Silvio, et al,Cancer Lett. 32(3):235-41 (1986)
67. Identification of N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cysteine:A human metabolite of N,N-dimethylformamide andN-methylformamide.Mraz, J. and Turecek, F.J. Chromatogr. 414(2)399-404 (1987)
68. N-acetylcysteine prevents diaphragmatic contractilealterations induced by Escherichia-coli endotoxemiain rats.Du, Y., Boczkowski, J. and Aubier, M.Rev. Respir. Dis. 143 (4 part 2) A560 (1991)
69. Urinary excretion of thiol conjugates of aflatoxin B1 inrats and hamsters.Raj, H. G. and Lotlikar, P. D.Cancer Lett. 22(2):125-33 (1984)
70. Modifying role of dietary factors on the mutagenicity ofaflatoxin B1: In vitro effect of sulfur-containing aminoacids.Shetty, T. K., Francis, A. R. and Bhattacharya, R. K.Mutat. Res. 222(4):403-7 (1989)
71. Metabolic, desmutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects ofN-acetylcysteine.De Flora, Silvio, Rossi, G. A. and De Flora, A.Respiration 30(suppl. 1):43-9 (1986)
72. In vitro effects of N-acetylcysteine on the mutagenicity ofdirect-acting compounds and procarcinogens.De Flora, Silvio, et al,Carcinogenesis 5(4):505-10 (1984)
73. In vivo effects of N-acetylcysteine on glutathionemetabolism and on the biotransformation of carcinogenicand/or mutagenic compounds.De Flora, Silvio, et alCarcinogenesis 6(12):1735-45 (1985)
74. Detoxification of genotoxic compounds as a thresholdmechanism limiting their carcinogenicity.De Flora, S.Toxicol. Pathol. 12(4):337-43 (1984)
75. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and ascorbic acid onmutagen-induced chromosomal sensitivity in patients withhead and neck cancers.Trazana, Zoltan, et al,Amer. J. Surg. 162:294-8 (1991)
76. Effect of exogenous glutathione on tumor progression in themurine skin multistage carcinogenesis model.Rotstein, J. B. and Slaga, T. J.
77. Second-line chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer.Andersen, M., Kristjansen, P. E. G. and Hansen, H. H.Cancer Treat. Rev. 17(4):427-36 (1990)
78. N-acetylcysteine as chemoprotectant in cancer chemotherapy.Martinez, Esteban and Domingo, PereLancet 338:249 (July 27, 1991)
79. Long-term oral acetylcysteine in chronic bronchitis: Adouble-blind controlled study.Multicenter Study GroupEur. J. Respir. Dis. 61(Sup.):93 (1980)
80. The reduction in vitro in viscosity of mucoproteinsolutions by a new mucolytic agent, N-acetylcysteine.Sheffner, A. L.Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 106:288 (1963)
81. Toxicological, pharmacokinetics and metabolic studies onacetylcysteine.Bonanomi, L. and Gazzaniga, A.Eur. J. Respir. Dis. 61(Sup):45-51 (1980)
82. AcetylcysteineMerck Index
83. Pharmokinetics of oral acetylcysteine.Rodenstein, D., DeCoster, A. and Gazzaniga, A.Clin. Pharmacokin. 3:247-54 (1978)
84. Clinical pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine.Borgstrom, L., Kagedal, B. and Paulsen, O.Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 31:217-22 (1986)
85. Pharmokinetics and bioavailability of reduced and oxidizedN-acetylcysteine.Olsson, B., et al,Eur. J. Clin. Pharmocol. 34:77-82 (1988)
86. Acetylcysteine: A drug that is much more than a mucokinetic.Ziment, I.Biomed. Pharmacother. 42:513-20 (1988)
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R.Clin. Pharmacokinet. 20:123-34 (1991)
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You can reach Vibrant Life in many ways, including by mail to Vibrant Life, PO Box 10666, Burbank, CA 91510-0666. Within the US and Canada, use the toll free number: (800) 523-4521, the local number: (818) 558-7099, eMail to firstname.lastname@example.org or any one of the hundreds of message forms throughout the 60 web sites. Vibrant Life normally ships the same day we get an order. There are message forms on each of the 100,000+ pages on this and other sites where you can communicate with Vibrant Life. Check out our companion site, at: http://www.oralchelation.net where Karl's 2000 page book is published. Karl Loren is the author and webmaster for this BOOK, as well as for another web site about ORAL CHELATION. His personal philosophical articles are at PHILOSOPHY.
Copyright © May 23, 2012 4:52 PM by Karl Loren on behalf of Vibrant Life, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Permission is granted for non-commercial downloading, copying, distribution or redistribution on two conditions: One, that some form of copyright notice is included in every copy distributed or copied, showing the copyright belonging to Vibrant Life, Burbank, CA, at www.oralchelation.com . The second condition is that the material is not to be used for any purpose contrary to the purposes and objectives of this site. This permission does not extend to materials on this site which are copyrighted by others.